高中英语语法复习笔记

词性

10 种词性:名词n.、动词v.、形容词adj.、副词adv.、代词pron.、介词prep.、连词conj.、冠词art.、感叹词interj.、数词num.

  • 动词分实义动词(vt. vi.)与情态动词(后面加 do)

  • 副词种类很多

  • 易忽略的不定代词:all few/little none one

  • 介词 重点在动词短语题选第二个词

  • 连词分并列连词与逻辑连词

  • 冠词:a / an / the / 零冠词,“a/an” 译为一个,“the” 译为这/那个(些),零冠词不翻译。

  • 数词分基数词与序数词

句子成分

9 种句子成分:() () 定 状 补 () 系 同位

  • 宾语放在 vt. 或 prep. 后面

  • 定语(adj. -> n)、状语(adv. -> v.) 限定范围

  • 宾补 -(变被动)> 主补

谓语

  • 实义动词:

    1. vt.必须加宾语 (“BE + vt.-ed[done]” ≈ vi.)
    2. vi 后接句号"." 或接介宾
  • 情态动词:情态v. + do 充当谓语

  1. 只有 vt. 才有被动

  2. 当 v.(vi. vt.) 前能 + “被” 即为 vt.

  3. 数量上 vt. >> vi.,不确定时蒙vi.(因为考少的)

状语

限定谓语动词或系动词的 时间、地点、原因、结果、条件、目的、让步、(方式、比较)

副词

adv.限定v. adv.的种类:

  1. 常规adv.: adj.+ “-ly” => adv.

  2. 不常规: fast, hard,well

  3. 时间adv.:the day after tomorrow, last night

  4. 地点adv.:here, home, upstairs, outside

  5. 频率adv: all the time, seldom, rarely

  6. 程度adv.(修饰adj.或 adv.): quite, very, too, so, rather, pretty, fairly

  7. 方位adv.: in, out, on, off, about, away 例:wander about

形容词

adj.:限定主语等 n./pron. 成分等状态:I arrived home, 又累又饿(hungry and exhausted).

介宾短语:

I met Teacher Wang +

  1. 时间状语: on Sunday.

  2. 地点状语: at home.

  3. 原因状语: because of our common interest.

  4. 让步状语: in spite of our different schedules.

  5. 方式状语: by accident.

  6. 比较状语: as often as(prep.) his daughter

  7. 条件状语: under some(某种) circumstance.

补语

“补” = 补足 = 补充完整 = 缺之则不足

公式:主 + 谓 + 宾 + 宾补(补足宾语) =(变被动)> 主语(宾语变的) + BE + vt.-ed[done] + 主补(补足主语)

  1. n.: We elected her our monitor(宾补). =(被动)> She was elected our monitor(主补).

  2. adj. You(主) drove(谓) me(宾) crazy(宾补).

  3. to do: sb. lead(vt. 领导) sb. to do(补足sb.的宾补)
    lead(vi.导致) to(prep.) + n./pron.(宾语)

  4. 分词(doing, done): sb. see sb. (to) do sth. / doing sth.宾语主动 / done宾语被动

    I see him beating the guy. 我看见他打了那个哥们。
    I see him beaten. 我看见他被打了

  5. 从句: The 16-year teaching experience makes me what I am.

系动词

例: like v. (无被动) 主 + 系 + (n./adj./介宾短语/从句)

  1. 纯系词 = Be: am / is / are / was / were / been / be

  2. 半系词:甚至可以全译为“是”

    1. 感官系动词: look, sound, taste, smell. feel(摸起来、感觉) The pitaya tastes sour.

    2. 保持: keep, stay, remain, (lie, stand) The man stand still. 这个男人保持静止。

    3. 变得/变成: go, become, turn, get, grow, come

    4. 似乎: seem, appear

    5. 证明是: prove His prediction proves true. 他的预测证明是真的。

    6. 进入…状态: fall

同位语

解释说明 => “n. 后” : 后

  1. n. : I’d like to invite you,: my loyal friends, to go together with me.

  2. “of + n.”: He has a father of a doctor.

  3. 从句: The news that many innocent(无辜的) lives were deprived in the serious floading was so heart-breaking.

五种简单句

  1. 主 + 谓.
  2. 主 + 谓 + 宾.
  3. 主 + 谓 + 宾 + 宾.
  4. 主 + 谓 + 宾 + 宾补.
  5. 主 + 系 + 表.

三大从句

(按在高中重要性排名)

  1. adv. 副词性从句:充当状语。

  2. n. 名词性从句:充当主、宾、表、同位、(补)语。

  3. adj. 形容词性从句:充当定语。

状语从句

时间(≈ 条件) / 地点; 原因 / 结果(≈目的);(顺接) ; 让步(转接);(方式/比较)

时间状从

  1. when: 当…时(主将从现、when + 短动作 两种情况)
    when’ : 突然 / 就在那时 => 从句动作突发
    when’’ = if 如果 使用条件:句中出现用现代时描述事实
    when’‘’ : 既然 -(转接)> 与特殊疑问句连用,表示对主句的质疑

  2. while: 当…时 + 长动作 / be 动词
    while’ : “而” => 主从句对比发生

  3. as: 当…时 => “一边…一边…” / “与此同时” He works as he studies.

  4. before / after: "前"接后;“后”接前
    "You can’t have(前) your foot ball back “前"before you promise(后) not to kick it at my cat.”, the old man said.

  5. The moment (…的时刻) / The instant (…的瞬间) 从句与主句动作顺向接连发生

  6. till = until

    • 从句肯定时 => “直到”

    • 从句否定时 => = before

    The girl won’t stop crying until / till => before you help her find her mother.

  7. as soon as: 一…()=> 主从句动作接连发生.(没有时态限制)

    一…就…':(Hardly / Scarecelly … when …) / (No sooner …[部分倒装、过去完成时 => had sb. done] than[就] (就) )

[书] 用于描述接连发生于过去的两动作

[书]:我一从贵公司网站上看到招聘信息,就想到要尝试一下。

Scarecelly had I (seen / noticed < ) learnt the vacant post on your website when I realized that I would make an attempt.

=(得体)>

Knowing that you’re seeking for a 职位, I’m writing to apply for the post.

条件状从

  1. if = providing / provided[倘若] that = supposed (that) [假设] = on condition that 同位语[以“同位语”为条件] + 后接导致主句结果多种条件之一

    We will go to the zoo on condition that it doesn’t rain.

  2. as / so long as = once (一旦) = only if(只有) + 后接与主句一一对应关系的排他性条件

    [书]解决问题型:段尾喊口号

    I’m quite confident(形容词动词化) that the problem will be better solved one day as long as we take the relevant measures mentioned as above without delay

  3. unless: 句中译做除非,句首 / 插入语 => if + 从句取反.

    All the photograph, unless stated otherwise, date back from 1950s.
    [阅]Which of the following is TRUE according to the passage?
    A. Most of the photos in this book were taken in 1950s.
    B. Few of the photos in this book weren’t taken in 1950s.

    俩都对

  4. as / so far as (I know): 就(我所知)而言

    As far as I can see, …

    As far as the topic " is concerned(涉及) ", …

    [书] In terms of + n. [formal] / When it comes to + n. [informal], (就…而言)

    As far as I am concerned, 后接涉及自己的观点

让步状从

  1. “虽然 / 尽管” 后接主观负向事实

    1. although = while 句首 / “,” 后的句中

    2. though 句首 / “,” 后的句中 / 直接句中 / 形式倒装(n. / adj. + though + 主 + 系)

    3. as:只能形式倒装! n. / adj. /adv. + as / though + 主 + 剩余成分

      Young / Girl as she is, she performs much better than most of the boys.

      Try as we may, the problem still exists. 尽管我们努力了,问题仍然存在。

      Hard as I have tried, I can’t satisfy my mother.

  2. 即使 / 即便 / 哪怕 / 就算

    even if = even though 后接与事实相悖的假设

    While / Although / Though you are a naughty boy, (你是淘气的,我认为淘气不好)

    Even if / Even though you are a naughty boy,(事实上不淘气,[更不该…])

  3. whether … or …

    • 是…还是… => 选择(名词性从句)
    • 无论…还是…(都) => 让步状语从句
  4. x-ever vs no matter x [x = what where when which whose who whom how]

    1. 状语从句中x-ever = no matter x

    2. 只有代词性 x-ever 能引导名词性从句

    3. “no matter” 是干扰项

    *however:
    adv. ≈ 并列连词“然而” => 转折
    conj. 无论多么 + adj. / adv. + => 程度
    conj. 无论怎么 => 方式

原因状从

  1. 因为:

    1. because: 不考

    2. as: 众多意思中想出“因为”

    3. for: …, 因为 = for

    4. in that: … vi … in(做vi.状语) that …

    5. considering that / seeing that 鉴于[formal]

  2. 既然 -(顺接)> 弱因果:从句中的原因可以导致多个结果

    since = now that + 多接现在完成时

  3. in case:

    • 后接"-"(坏事): 以防

    • 后接"+ / o"*(好事或者无感情色彩的事): if + because: 先以从句为条件,若条件为真,再以其为原因,发生主句结果

结果状从

so / such … that … 如此…以至于…

, so that … 如此…以至于…

目的状从

so that = in order that … (CAN / COULD …) 为了…

名词性从句

主、宾、表、同位

大成分(用于判断从句类型): 从句 -> 整句
小成分(用于判断连词选择): 连词 -> 从句

[What(小=主) are considered as goods of life]大=主 seems unimportant to me.

=> I don’t care (about) [what people are eager to pursue(vt. 追求) (小=宾)]大=宾(vt.'s / prep’s)

I am [what I am(小=表)]大=表.

*连词用法:

  • that: 不充当小成分;从句≈陈述句;不可省略

  • 特A(小成分,缺主/宾/表/定): what, (who,) (whom,) (whose,) which

  • 特B(小成分,“不缺”-> 缺状语;谓v.缺选择): when, where, how, why, whether, if

  1. that vs whether/(if)

    that whether
    主句:确定语气 不确定语气
    从句:+ 陈述句 + 选择疑问句

    – Is there any possibility [that you pick me up to the airport]大=同位?
    – No problem.

  2. *高频正确项: what vs that/which(高频干扰项)

    what 名词性从句中充当小成分:主 / 宾 / 表

    that/which在定语从句中充当小成分:主 / 宾

  3. which : “哪一个” =>范围内选择

    which + n. (前文“出现”); which of n.

  4. 关于“特B”中的 when, where, how(方式/程度adj./adv.), why的选择

    它们在从句中充当小成分相应的状语 => 小成分中没有相关状语

    Scientists are trying to figure out ____ many birds, insects and animals are dying out.

    A.that B.whether C.when D.where E.how F.why

    B D E F

  5. “if” 作 “是否” 讲时,不引导主语从句,只引导vt’s 后的宾语从句

    I wonder if you have any other suggestions (on your schadule / on my arrangements).If so, contact me without hesitation.

定语从句

  1. 结构: 先行词(句) (,) 连词 + 从句(-> 修饰先行词或句)

  2. * 限定性定从 vs 非限定性定从

    限定性 非限定性
    一口气翻出整个偏正关系 翻完先行词(句)喘口气

    The pencil which is in my hand costs a lot.

    All of us surf on the Internet everyday , where we get ourselves relaxed.

  3. 连词用法

    先行词: 人 / 物 事 / 物 / 句 人 / 事 / 物 / 句
    特一: who whom whose that which as“正如”
    成分缺 主、vt’s 宾 vt’s 宾 定语 主、宾 主、宾 主、宾
    先行词: 时间n. 具/抽象地点n. reason
    特二: when where why
    成分“不缺” 时状 地状 原因状

非谓语动词

  • 不定式: to do , 可以作为n.(主、宾、表)adj.(定、补)adv.(状)

  • 分词: doing / done , 可以作为adj.(定、表、补)adv.(状)

  • 动名词: doing , 可以作为n.(主、宾、表)

第一种考法:考成分

作主语

to do vs doing

to do doing
讲道理 摆事实
(默认说时未做) (不关心做没做)

[书] It is important for sb. to do sth.

=> It is of significance that sb (to) do sth.

动名词做主语用于书面表达中陈述事实时,vt-ing + 主力v. … / vi-ing + + 主力v.

作宾语

to do vs doing

to do doing
(只能作vt.'s(复数)宾语 vt.'s(少数)/prep.'s 宾
  1. (独立主格中的) doing作介’s宾

    公式: … vi.(谓v.) + prep. … n. / pron. doing

  2. doing 作可省略的介词 in 的宾语

    1. 主语 have difficulty(-ies) / problem(s) / trouble(s) (in) doing sth.

    2. 主语 have a adj. time (in) doing sth.

    3. 人 spend ¥/时间 on sth. / (in) doing sth.

作表语

n. -> to do / doing

adj. -> doing / done

  1. 表n.性表语: to do vs doing

    to do doing
    默认先系后表 不跟系v.比先后

    [书] to do 作n.性表语用于表“目的”:

    “We do sth. to do sth…=> By means of doing sth., our aim is to do sth…

    我校举办此次活动,旨在回顾我们三年的校园生活。

    By means of lauching the event, our school aims / aimed to provide us with an opportunity to review our 3-year high school experience.

  2. adj.性表语: doing 现在分词 vs done 过去分词

    “使动vt. 的主 / 被动”

    1. 使动vt. 与主语是主动 -(非谓语)> doing

      interest vt. 使…产生兴趣

      The book interests(主语主动) me. =(非谓化)> The book is interesting(≈adj.性表语,主语主动).

    2. 使动vt. 与主语是被动 -(非谓语)> done

      -(变被动)> I am interested in(≈adj.性表语, be vt.-ed ≈ vi.) the book.

作定语

  • n.性 doing 限定n.内在性质

  • adj.性 to do / doing / done 限定n.外在状态

*作 adj. 定语:to do vs doing / done

to do doing / done
后置定语 单个词前置 doing n. / done n.
n. to do(修饰n.) 成短语后置 n. doing sth. / n. done by sth.(修饰n.)
  1. to do 作定语:与逻辑主语的主 / 被动关系:发生与主力v.之后

    I(逻辑主语,主动) have many things (to do)作定语修饰宾语.

    There are many things(逻辑主语,被动) to be done.

    => If there are many things to do, I(逻辑主语,主动)'d like to offer my help

    同一句话中,逻辑主语优先找主谓,其次找动宾。

  2. doing / done 作定语和被修饰的n.的主被动关系;和主力v.的同时 / 之前关系

    • falling leaves “飘叶”->与主句主力v.相比同时发生

    • fallen leaves “落叶”->与主句主力v.相比,先 done 后主力 v.

    do -> vi. 时 => doing 只表“同时”;done 只表“之前”

    do -> vt. 时 => doing 表“主动 / 同时”;done 表“”被动 / 之前

    a sitting(vi.) clock 座钟 a girl sitting here(修饰girl )

    … 主力v. … the written(vt.发生在主力v.之前) language(被动,“书面语言”)

    This is(后) a piece of test paper (written by[prep.] Professor Wang)(先,修饰test paper).

作宾补

非谓语只作 adj.性宾补

  • to do: 先主力v.后宾补

  • doing: 和主力v.同时发生,与逻辑主(宾)语主动

  • done(vt.): 和主力v.不比先后,与逻辑主(宾)语被动

既能加省略 to 的不定式,又能 + doing / done 作宾补的谓:

  • 使役v.: make, have

  • 感官v.: see, notice, watch, observe, look at, hear, listen to, overhear, feel

作状语

to do vs doing / done

to do doing / done
目的 / 因 / 果 时间 / 地点 / 条件 / 因 / 果 / 让步
  1. to do:

    1. 作目的状语:“在后接 doing 作宾语的vt. 后作目的状语”

      We watched the movie (we have enjoyed) to kill time.

    2. 作原因状语:主 + 系 + adj.表语 + to do(作系’s原因)

      [书]回信头一句 I am more than delighted to hear from you again.

    3. 作结果状语: only to find / only to be told

  2. 分词作状语:

    1. 时间状语:

      While I was walking in the street, an accident happened.

      => When(表明时状) walking in the street, an accident happened.

    2. 条件状语:

      If I was gaven more time, I could have finished the paper.

      => Gaven / Had been gaven more time, I could have finished the paper.

    3. * 让步状语:

      (虽然) Beaten(beat) by a Japanese athelete, the Chinese athelete did win enough respect.

    4. 结果状语:

      doing 在“,”后作前整句的结果状语

      The little boy fell, hurting his head. 常考: causing / making / letting

第二种考法

考时态 / 语态变化

形式 与谓v.关系 与逻辑主语关系 与谓v.先后
to do 目的 主动 之后
to be done 目的 被动 之后
to be doing 目的 主动 同时
to have done 目的 主动 之前
to have been done 目的 被动 之后
to(prep.) doing
to) did
doing 主动 同时
done 被动 之前
being done 被动 同时
having done 主动 之前
having been done 被动 之前

*作状语时 done = having been done

*作其他成分时 选done

时态[语态/主谓一致]

关于语态,多选被动(be done); “主表被” => v.的vi.用法

关于主谓一致,跟横线钱n.反着选

动词形式: 时(间)/(状)态

  • 时间:现在 / 过去 / 将来 / 过去将来

  • 状态:一般(时间轴以一个点存在,经常反复 / 平常) / 进行(“正在”) / 完成(“干完了”“结束”) / 完成进行“一直”

  • 一般现在时: do / does; be (am / is / are)

  • 一般过去时: did; be (was / were)

  • 一般将来时: will do; will be

  • 一般过去将来时: would(过去式) do; would be

  • 现在进行时: am / is / are doing

  • 过去进行时: was / were doing

  • *将来进行时: will + be doing

  • 现在完成时: have / has done; have / has been

  • 过去完成时: had done; had been

  • 将来完成时: will have done

  • 现在完成进行时: have / has been doing

考点

一般现在时

  1. “主将从现”中,从句中 do / does 表将来

  2. 常态化动词不因时间断层而改变

一般过去时

  1. 暗示现在动作状态与过去相反

    I loved you. => 现在“不爱”

    I didn’t realize that … => 现在“意识到” => 致歉

  2. 表示不确定准确起止点的过去时间段动作:did vs had done

    • did: 点

    • had done: 准确止点(did已知过去点 / 过去点时间状语)

(一般将来时)

will do ≈

  • am / is / are going to do (计划)

  • am / is / are (about ) to do (不接准确时间状语,从句中现在时表将来)

    … will have to do if am / is / are to do

  • am / is / are doing:“眼瞅” 所有能进行的都不表将来 ≈ will do in the near future

过去将来时

would do: 横线外有 did, 先 did 后横线

常与 would do 连用的 did: expected / promised / predicted

现在进行时

am / is / are doing(主动) vs am / is / are being done(被动)

与现在时间段连用

I am prepareing for the test these days(地跨now点左右的时间段).

过去进行时

  1. 穿越过去时间点或段的动作

  2. was / were doing(表临界状态的v.) ≈ would do in the near future

     When he arrived, I was just leaving, so I just had few words with him.   他来的时候我眼瞅就走了,所以我只跟他说了几句话。
    

将来进行时

主将从现中,主句“将正在”

现在完成时

*have / has done: vs did

have / has done did
起过去,止现在(长动词) 过去点发生(随机任意点)
起过去,止过去,但想说止在现在(短过词) 起过去,止过去(止点不确定)
  • have / has done / do / does + since + did

“至今” so far(需要能翻译为至今) / by now / up to now / up till now => 止点在"now" => have / has done

“by + 时间点(止点)” => 完成时

"for + 时间段"不一定跟完成时连用

过去完成时

与 did 连用,发生与did前,结束与did上

将来完成时

起点在过去 / 现在 / 将来,止点在将来后更远的将来

现在完成进行时

“一直” -> 过程难捱,消极情绪

起点过去某随机任意点,在到 now 的过程中每个时间点穿越

成题时,有另一句交代过now点是否延续

虚拟语气

虚拟:假的 / 想的

语气:动词形式

If 后的条件状从中的虚拟:

If + 从句 + , + 主句 .

时态 从句 主句
与现在相反 did; be-> were would(多考)/could/should/might + do
与过去相反 had done would(多考)/could/should/might + have done
与将来相反或期望、渴求 should do / were to do would(多考)/could/should/might + do

部分倒装 + If条件句虚拟语气

从句中的 were / had / should 提至句前,省略If

[书] Were I in your shoes, I would choose to do sth. >> You’d better do sth.

but / otherwise 引导的隐含条件句

but“但是”,otherwise“否则”

I would help you, but I am busy.

≈ If I weren’t busy, I would help you.

≈ I am busy, otherwise I would help you

以 but 为轴 -> 倒过来 -> but“但是”变otherwise“否则”

"but for / without + n."代替if从句

but for“要不是”,without + n.“没有 n.”

[书] 感谢信 But for your help generous help, I couldn’t have made such remarkable progress.

“几个特定的vt.”的虚拟

主句 + vt. + that (should) do

建议: suggest, advise, propose, recommend

[书] 提建议 What is highly recommended is that you (should) do sth…

命令: order, command

要求: require, request, demand, desire

坚持: insist

一个“神”虚拟句型

It is important / significant / necessary / strange / natural that v. = (should) do.